Did you know that the average major component replacement order can take up to 8 weeks to deliver? Can your company afford to wait that long?
The WaveCare Solution
In the unlikely event that you experience an analyzer component failure, a pre-purchased WaveCare plan can help you avoid these costly and inconvenient delays.
WaveCare is add-on support plan that provides access to priority delivery of replacement parts. Simply contact Guided Wave Technical Support and we will assist your technician in identifying the required module. It then can be shipped from Guided Wave to your facility by overnight courier. Remote support and video documentation for the replacement is provided. Guided Wave analyzers are designed to be simple to service by your own analyzer technicians. However, optional on-site field engineer support is available also.
A typical module service replacement involves sending the affected module back to the factory for evaluation and repair. By purchasing the WaveCare support plan downtime is avoided and access to the parts you need, when you need them most, is guaranteed. Please contact Technical Support or see the WaveCare Brochure
Typical Analyzer Parts List
• All Electronics and Power Supplies
• Spectrometer Module Assembly
• Lamp / Filter Module Assembly
• Instrument Controllers
• Cabinet Air Conditioner
• F/O Modem
• I/O Gateway Module
• Electrical Cables
WaveCare Support Service Plan
Remote Analyzer Diagnostics
Discounts on In-House Training Courses
Covers all Guided Wave Parts
Guarantee Availability of all Analyzer Parts
Shipping Paid by Fastest Method (via International Priority
Service, or USA Overnight)
Advanced Purchase Order Not Needed to Ship
Support Plans Available for All Guided Wave Analyzers
Free On-Demand Training Series for OmniView Process Analysis Software
The NIR-O full spectrum NIR analyzer with OmniView process analysis software has a series of new training videos to help you become an expert user or at the very least will reduce the learning curve. There are 7 training videos in the first series that all focus on Creating a Method.
What is a Method in OmniView? A Method is the set of instructions which tells OMNIVIEW how to process spectra collected by the NIR-O and convert that data into actionable information or real-world values. A Method or Group of Methods includes process steps such as Baseline Correction, Multiplicative Scatter Correction, Partial Least Squares Regression with Unscrambler, and customizable functions.
Creating a Method in OmniView NIR-O Analysis Software:
Part 1 – Creating a Method Introduction Dr Steve Elam, Lead Software Developer with Guided Wave discusses the finer parts of implementing a method with the NIR-O analyzer Omniview software.
Part 2 – Copy and Paste a Method This video covers how to copy a method or group of calibrations between sample points.
Part 3 – Creating a Method for 3rd Party Software Learn how to leverage the power of unscrambler and other 3rd party chemometric programs using the NIR-O Full Spectrum NIR analyzer with OmniView process analysis software.
Part 4 – Import and Export Methods Review this convenient method and calibration models for copying configurations between an analyzer in the field or between different channels on the same analyzer.
Part 5 – Creating Method Groups Need to predict multiple traits from a single scan? This video covers how to make groups of methods which enables you to process the spectra in unique ways for each answer.
Part 6 – Transferring Answers to an Output Learn how to configure Modbus communications in OmniView. This video covers mapping answers generated by Methods to Modbus addresses. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=45×6-OPDWXU
Part 7 – Mapping an Output to a (4to20) Devices that Don’t support Modbus IP addressing? OmniView and the NIR-O Full Spectrum Analyzer also supports analog outputs. This videos demonstrates how to configure 4-20mA outputs.
NIR-O Full Spectrum NIR Analyzer using OmniView Process Analysis Software
NIR-O is the core of a comprehensive process analyzer system that includes the spectrometer, one or more NIR probes, fiber optic cables, and OmniView™ scanning and analysis software. Like our previous Guided Wave spectrometers, NIR-O uses infrared radiation to collect spectral data from liquids, gases, glass, and polymer-based films. The spectral data are interpreted by the OmniView software to determine the composition or physical characteristics of the material. Online Process Monitoring and Control made easier with OmniView Flexible and robust, OmniView analysis software is ideal for continuous process monitoring applications. OmniView provides an environment for continuous and batch process analysis. The software may be implemented in all installations of NIR-O analyzers.
However, this will only work as long as the channel’s configuration does not change. If in the future someone adjusts the starting position or the step size then the position inside of the array will change and the above code will not work. To properly determine the index at which to find absorbance at a particular wavelength, e.g. 1430nm, the above code would have to calculate the index as follows:
Customers are often concerned with what flowrates are compatible with our Multipurpose flowcells and sample systems. To help answer this question Guided Wave has developed a Reynolds Number calculator, which is located towards the bottom of this webpage. The same concerns can also be applied to our family of insertion transmission spectroscopy probes, but we will limit our discussion to the less complex geometry of the flowcell.
The Relationship Between Analyzer Noise and Reynolds Number
The question of flow rate cannot be answered without more information regarding the sample. To achieve stable Near Infrared Spectroscopy readings, a steady flow of fluid must be passing through the optical beam during the measurement. The flow can either be smooth and laminar or turbulent. Flowrate alone cannot be determined without understanding the fluid dynamics such as the kinematic viscosity and the diameter of the pipe passing through the flowcell. Additionally, if the flow has particulates, bubbles, or mixed phases which will vary the chemical composition and index of refraction during the measurement period, then the NIR measurement will not be stable.
What is Viscosity?
The textbook definition of viscosity is the resistance of the fluid to flow or deform. Said another way, viscosity is the thickness of the fluid. The classic example is molasses which is thicker and thus has a higher viscosity than water. This may be referred to as the absolute or dynamic viscosity of the liquid.
What is Kinematic Viscosity?
The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is the ratio of the viscosity of the fluid to the fluid’s density. For most fuel and other liquids, fluid dynamic values have already been tabulated. For example, 100% ethanol at 25C has the following known properties.
Fluid Dynamic Properties of Ethanol at 25C
What is a Reynolds Number?
The Reynold Number (Re) is a mathematical equation helps to
determine if the flow in the pipe is Laminar Flow or Turbulent Flow. This is
achieved by relating the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, diameter of the
pipe, and the linear speed or flowrate of the liquid sample. See equation 1
*To achieve laminar flow Re < 2100 or turbulent flow Re> 3000
Relating the Flow Rate to the Fluid Velocity.
To calculate the linear velocity of the fluid we use equation 2, shown below. Our 10 mm pathlength Multipurpose Flowcell has an approximate internal surface area of 9.37×10-5 m2.
Calculating the Reynolds Number for Ethanol.
If we assume the flow rate through the inner 0.43-inch pipe diameter (1/2 inch OD pipe) is 3.0 L/min, then we get:
Fluid Velocity = (4*3(L/min)) / (3.14*(0.010922m)) = 0.53 meters per second
Now applying this value into equation 1 with the tabulated value for viscosity we see that:
Re= 0.53 m/s * 0.010922m / 0.000001 m2/s ≈ 4500
Because a Re of 4500 is greater than 3000, we can be confident that the flow through the optical beam of the flowcell is turbulent. Thus measurement of the sample liquid should result in high-quality spectra. This again assumes that the liquid sample passing through the flowcell is heterogeneous and free of particulate matter or other contaminants.
Interested in determining what your Renolds number is? Check out the Reynolds number calculator below.
The Next Step
The next step in solving your process monitoring challenges is to complete our Application Questionnaire. With information such as the concentration range, sample temperature and viscosity Guided Wave engineers and sales representatives can design you a fit for purpose solution. Guided Wave manufactures a wide variety of rugged fiber optic process probes offering high optical efficiency, durability, reliability, convenience, accurate pathlengths, and value. Contact a sales representative for help solving your process challenges.
Guided Wave has been measuring H2O2 and H2O concentrations in various vapor mixtures for over 25 years using near-infrared (NIR), fiber optic-coupled analyzers. Guided Wave’s HPV analyzer is a simple turnkey solution for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide and water (H2O2 and H2O) concentrations in vapor phase. These are both measured together because they are codependent. The analyzer operates in real time, which takes the guesswork out of determining the H2O2 and H2O concentrations during cycle development and throughout the actual sterilization cycle.
The complete system consists of an HPV analyzer, one or two G-SST probes, and a pair of fiber optic cables for each probe.
The first generation probe developed for measuring hydrogen peroxide in sterilizers was a single pass 25 cm probe. Later this probe was vented for vacuum use yielding a path length of 28..3 cm. This original design, exposed optics the optics (lenses) to the gases being measured. Since lenses are sensitive to the index of refraction of the surrounding air which is a function of its constituency, in this case varying water and hydrogen peroxide vapor, this resulted in a small but detectable change in the effective focal lengths of the lenses. As a result, baseline shifts could occur, which would decrease the accuracy of the absorption measurements and ultimately causes a small bias in the reported concentration of vaporized hydrogen peroxide during sterilization.
In 2003, GWI developed the first G-SST vapor probe, a double pass design with a pathlength of 50 cm. The longer pathlength increased the accuracy of the measurement. This probe still exposed the process side of the lenses to the sterilization chamber. Once again, small changes in baseline could be seen as the air pressure and vapor concentrations changed. Furthermore, the lenses were glued into place and after a couple of years of heavy service, the glue degraded due to exposure to hydrogen peroxide, necessitating service. Below is a photograph of the original G-SST probe with its perforated tube design.
In 2018, the engineering team at Guided Wave began a redesign project with the intention of reducing cost and improving the performance and service life of the G-SST probe. GWI retained the 50 cm folded pathlength, the gold-coated second surface mirror and the high optical efficiency. An o-ring sealed window was added to isolate the optics from the process.
Primary Advantages New 50 cm Pathlength G-SST Over The Previous 25 cm, 28.3 cm and the original 50 cm G-SST probe
The double pass beam design (folded path) provides double of the beam interaction with the gases in the sterilizer chamber. This increases the achievable signal-to-noise making for a more accurate and stabile measurement. Since the absorbance of water and Hydrogen Peroxide vapor is very weak, this is a significant improvement in the measurement accuracy.
The optics are sealed behind a window which isolates the lenses from the sterilization chamber; thus the probe is no longer sensitive to index of refraction changes, This makes the measurements are more stable under widely varying conditions of deep vacuum to high concentrations of water and hydrogen peroxide vapor.
To allow the probe to be quickly serviced by a technician, the perforated cage around the beam path was to the open structure shown in Figure 2. With the lenses behind an o-ring sealed window, there is no adhesive degradation increasing the service life of the probe.
In addition to these engineering improvements, the newly designed G-SST probe is a form, fit, and function replacement for the older style G-SST probes. This allows for nearly effortless upgrading for existing customers who purchase the new and improved style of G-SST. The probe is available with a KF flange, sanitary flange, or flangeless. Obviously, the flanged probes are intended to insert into the sterilizer through a 2” [50 mm] flanged port thus the fiber optic cables remain outside of the chamber. However, all versions can be 100% immersed in the sterilizer chamber with the addition of 2 small o-rings.
Improved Signal to Noise Through Folded Path Optics
The old 25 and 28.3 cm path length probes utilized single pass optics. As part of the redesign, a folded mirror configuration was developed, so that the light passes through the probe twice without significantly increasing the footprint of the probe. This design also keeps the optical fiber connections on one end and, when installed through a flanged port, outside of the process. To intentionally avoid measuring scattered light, the two paths are separated. By increasing the effective path length to 50 cm, the absorbance and therefore the signal-to-noise is doubled.
The Old G-STT Suffered From Variable Index of Reaction
The old G-SST probe and the even older 25 cm gas probe had the lenses exposed to the vapors and air. The lenses collimate the light in the probe and refocus the light onto the end of the small return fiber. The focal length of the lens is dependent on the index of refraction of the air surrounding the lens. For most practical applications, the index of air is taken as unity and not of any concern. However, in this application, the chamber medium can change from vacuum to pure N2 to very high humidity air with Hydrogen Peroxide vapor. Absolute Vacuum is defined to have an index of refraction of 1.0 exactly. Air has an Index of Refraction of 1.0003. Water vapor and Hydrogen Peroxide vapor will change the index of the air depending on their concentrations. As the index of refraction changes, so does the degree of focus of the probe. This changes the baseline offset of the absorbance measurement. The baseline offset is also wavelength dependent.
In other words, Guided Wave found that the old probes suffered from a baseline sensitivity under different operating conditions. This was most notable when going from vacuum to high relative humidity conditions, such as during sterilization. The wavelength sensitivity did cause a slight change in the water and Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor measurements produced by the Hydrogen Peroxide Monitor.
Controlling the Index of Refraction in the Redesigned G-SST Probe
The new G-SST probe has a window which separates the lenses from the vapors. This window is in a collimated portion of the beam, so the focus is not sensitive to the index of refraction of the sample. The result is a more stable baseline under varying process conditions, hence the removal of one small source of measurement error.
Improving the Service Life of the G-SST
In the old G-SST probe design, the lenses were glued in using TorrSeal. This adhesive, while being low outgassing for vacuum use, was attacked by the vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide. As a result, the service life was reduced and many probes had to be rebuilt or replaced. The window in the new G-SST probe is o-ring sealed, hence there is no adhesive exposed around the lenses. The mirror in the far end of the probe remains the same second surface gold-coated mirror. Being the second surface, the coating is not directly exposed to the gases. We use gold rather than aluminum because the aluminum would be attacked chemically by the peroxide. In addition, we pot the backside of the mirror in with RTV to prevent any vapor for getting to the mirror coating.
Existing Installations Can Be Upgraded to the Redesigned Probe Today!
The new style of G-SST is compatible with all generations of Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Analyzers. However, older analyzers may require a firmware upgrade before they can accept the new double pass 50 cm probe. This is due to a path length normalization feature which must be set to account for what generation of gas probe is connected to the analyzer.
The HPV analyzer along with the G-SST probe delivers accurate, real-time measurement results. The long term stability and no maintenance requirements of this system make it a cost-effective smart choice to help optimize productions, ensure product quality, and ultimately enhancing profitability.
Customers interested in upgrading to the redesigned G-SST probe should contact Guided Wave for price, lead time, and upgrade procedure specific to the serial number of the HPV analyzer.
As process spectroscopy has grown, so too has the number of different acronyms associated with the measurementmethods and associated mathematics, not to mention the acronyms for conferences and scientific organizations. For the newcomer this can be quite daunting to try to digest the alphabet soup from presentations and papers detailingdifferent applications of process spectroscopy.The purpose of this blog is to just give a list of relevant acronyms related to calibration that are commonly encountered and a short definition where relevant. The list below is in alphabetical order. This glossary represents the most popular data analysis terms you may use during your conversations about using process spectroscopy.
In reality, PLS, and MLR are
used most of the time in NIR applications. These are the two calibration
methods that Guided Wave uses in all of their analyzer applications. But there
are other techniques, we hope this brief list will help to make conversations easier
Calibration and Regression Methods Acronyms
Artificial Neural Networks An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an
information processing method that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems
process information. An ANN is composed of a large number of highly
interconnected processing elements (neurons) working together to solve specific
problems. An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern
recognition or data classification,
through a learning process. Learning involves adjustments to the connections that exist between the neurons.
In more practical terms
neural networks are non-linear statistical data
CLS – Classical Least Squares CLS (the K Matrix method) is a
regression method that assumes Beer’s Law applies – i.e. that absorbance at
each wavelength is proportional to component concentration. A model generated
using CLS in its simplest form, requires that all interfering chemical
components be known and included in the calibration data set.
Inverse Least Squares ILS (the P Matrix method) is a regression
method that applies the inverse of Beer’s Law. It assumes that component concentration
is a function of absorbance. An ILS model has a significant advantage over CLS
in that it does not need to know and include all components in the calibration
kNN – k Nearest Neighbor kNN is a classification scheme where a Euclidian distance metric is used to determine the classification. The distance metric calculated for an unknown sample is an indication of the degree of similarity to other samples.
LWR – Locally Weighted
locally weighted regression, sample points are weighted by their proximity to
the current sample point in question. A regression model is then computed using
the weighted points. In some cases LWR models can produce better accuracy.
MCR – Multivariate Curve
Curve Resolution is a group of techniques that can be used to resolve mixtures
by determining the number of constituents present and what their individual response
profiles (spectra, pH profiles, time profiles, elution profiles) look like. It
also provides an estimate of the concentrations. This can all be done with no
prior information about the nature and composition of the mixtures.
MLR – Multiple Linear Regression MLR is a regression method for relating the variations in a response variable (concentrations or properties) to the variations of several predictors (spectral data). The goal is to be able to measure the spectral data on future samples and predict the concentrations or properties. One requirement for MLR is that the predictor variables (spectral data) must be linearly independent.
Instrument and Technology Acronyms
NIR-O – Guided Wave’s next generation spectrometer and an evolutionary step-up from the M412, NIR-O stands for Near InfraRed Online process analyzer. NIR-O is suitable for online analyses of most processes and process streams. Having the built-in capacity to add more sampling points (up to 12 total channels) within the same process or across processes, in any combination, gives users the flexibility to invest in exactly the capacity they require now. It also minimizes investment for any expansion users may want in the future. NIR-O operates in the xNIR range of 1000-2100nm, using process-proven TE-cooled InGaAs detector technology.
FT-NIR – An alernative to disperive spectrometers, Fourier transform spectroscopy is an effective tool for lab analysis.
DG-NIR – Disperive grating technology was developed over 100 years ago and is the defacto standard for real time monitoring of in-situ process conditions.
Statistical and Mathematical Acronyms
OSC – Orthogonal Signal
signal correction is a technique originally developed and used for spectral
data to remove variation that is orthogonal (non-correlated) to a particular
parameter of interest. This is one way to remove interferences from spectral
data prior to calibration.
PC – Principal Component / PCA – Principal Component Analysis Principal component analysis (PCA) is a bi-linear modeling method that involves a mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components. The first principal component accounts for as much of the variability in the data as possible, and each succeeding component accounts for as much of the remaining variability as possible.
PCR – Principal Component Regression In PCR the PCA is taken one step further and a regression between the principal components and one or more response variables (concentrations or properties) is performed. A PCR model can then be used to predict concentrations or properties for unknown samples.
PLS – Partial Least Squares Partial Least Squares Regression is a bilinear modeling method where information in the original X variables (spectral data) is projected onto a small number of underlying “latent” variables called PLS components. The Y variables (concentrations or properties) are used in estimating the “latent” variables to ensure that the first components are those that are most relevant for predicting the Y-variables. Interpretation of the relationship between the X and Y variables is then simplified as this relationship is concentrated on the smallest possible number of components.
RMSEC – Root Mean Square Error of Calibration RMSEP – Root Mean Square Error of Prediction RMSEPcv – Root Mean Square Error of Prediction based on Cross Validation SEC – Standard Error of Calibration SEP – Standard Error of Prediction
These are all terms that are used to evaluate the performance of calibrations. The SEP terms are indications of how accurate a calibration model will be in predicting future samples. They are calculated using predicted results from true unknown samples. The RMSEP is an average expected prediction error. This differs slightly from the SEC terms that are providing the prediction error for the calibration samples used in developing the model. The relationship between RMSEP and SEP (RMSEC and SEC) is RMSEP2 = SEP2 + bias2
SVM – Support Vector Machines Support Vector Machines are a set of related supervised learning methods used for classification and regression. They belong to a family of generalized linear classifiers. These methods are finding their way into calibration programs and have shown great promise in their power to minimize prediction error for complex calibrations.
Water concentration is perhaps the most common measurement made in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range. This is due to its strong effect on product properties and chemical reactivity of the starting materials. From an analytical perspective, water is easy to measure due to its relatively strong signal compared to the hydrocarbon background.
Moreover, because water is commonly analyzed with a single wavelength, filter photometers are the instrument of choice. Guided Wave’s application note, “A Word (or Two) About Online NIR Water Measurements in Liquid Samples”, explains how we arrive at recommending a system, that is, a photometer with the proper wavelengths and a fiber optic probe with an appropriate sample path length. The following considerations affect the choice (and price) of the appropriate photometer and probe system:
Factors to Consider • Background hydrocarbon spectral characteristics • Concentration range of water and desired analytical precision • Potential interference from hydroxyl species • Sample temperature variations and clarity Analytical Goals • Provide maximum sensitivity • Select wavelength(s) to stay within linear range • Minimize interference due to background hydrocarbon variations and sample temperature changes • Use an optical path of >1 mm in the fiber optic probe for ease of cleaning and minimal entrapment of bubbles and particles
Cost Effective Solution The application note explains these factors and analytical goals in detail. Thus illustrating a cost-effective solution for obtaining the desired sensitivity for water over the concentration range of interest in most organic liquids. DOWNLOAD APPLICATION NOTE
Servicing ALL Probes and Flow Cell Insertion probes interface the analyzer to the process or sample, and regardless of the manufacturer, all probes used for absorption spectroscopy must be referenced (or zeroed) periodically and the windows occasionally cleaned. Therefore, practical methods for maintenance of the probe or access to the windows must be considered when choosing new sample interfaces.
Guided Wave’s Extractor Mechanism can be used for the controlled extraction of an in-line probe from pressurized process streams or reactors. Coupled with a gate or ball valve, these extractors have proven safe and effective in a variety of installations. Installation Examples:
The Extractor Mechanism utilizes a pneumatic drill to extract and insert the probe from the assembly via a gear mechanism. It may also be operated by a hand-held crank if drills are not permitted in the areas. When the Extractor Mechanism is purchased with an insertion probe, its conveniently assembled at the Guided Wave factory prior to shipment, allowing installation in the field to be fast and uncomplicated. Shutting down the process just to remove the probe and clean the windows isn’t possible for most plants. Installing the Extractor Mechanism allows a way to maintain the probe while the process is running, thus allowing continued use of the analyzer to verify process quality.
Benefits of Using the Extraction Mechanism • Quick and easy window cleaning without interruption in your process • Works with insertion probes in service at pressures of up to 700 psi (48 bar) • Custom extractors with different mounting flanges available • Custom materials of construction available • Installs easily on a 2 inch 300# flange of a gate or ball valve (other options available) • Compatible with Guided Wave and other brands of probes
WATCH EXTRACTOR MECHANISM IN ACTION “The method in which the probe is secured and installed in the process line is critical for safety and performance reasons. Additionally, the probe should be installed so that plant personnel can reliably remove and reinstall it in the same position each time. And that’s the beauty of the Extractor Mechanism – it achieves this goal in a superior way.” – James Low, Guided Wave Sales & Support Director James Low, Guided Wave Sales & Support Director
The 2019 Amgen Tour of California is a Tour de France-style cycling road race created and presented by AEG. Guided Wave’s facility is located in Rancho Cordova, California which is one of 13 Host Cities selected for the 14th edition of America’s premier professional cycling stage race. The race takes place from May 12-18, 2019 over 773 miles of California’s most scenic highways, mountain roads and coastlines.
On May 13th, the Stage 2 Start of the 2019 Amgen Tour of California will kick off on Prospect Park Drive in front of the iconic Rancho Cordova City Hall – which is only minutes from Guided Wave headquarters. Guided Wave’s staff will be out with hundreds of other locals to cheer on the 19 teams from around the world who will compete. Riders are expected from more than 30 nations.
Heading east from the start, the route will follow White Rock Road through the City of Rancho Cordova and El Dorado Hills, and then connect with the Stage 6 course from 2018. Once again, racers will enjoy the huge crowds and warm hospitality in Placerville.
They will also encounter some serious elevation. The King of the Mountain at Carson pass tops out at 8,620’, the highest point the race has ever reached in its 14 years. A long descent will allow the riders a short rest, but a left turn onto Highway 89 will take them to the top of Luther Pass and into South Lake Tahoe. For those who have raced to South Lake Tahoe in previous years, they know that a brutal finish up the steep roads to the Heavenly ski area finish looms ahead. Click here for a map of the Stage 2 race route.
How to Stream
Watch online at www.AmgenTourofCalifornia.com or on-the-go with the Amgen Tour of California TourTracker App, the premier app for up-to-the-minute and comprehensive information. Download the free app for iPhone, iPad and Android devices via iTunes, Google Play and the Apple and Android app stores.
The race takes place from May 12-18, 2019 over 773 miles of California’s most scenic highways, mountain roads and coastlines.
19 teams from around the world will compete in the Amgen Tour of California, and riders are expected from more than 30 nations.
The race will welcome back past champions, including Team Jumbo-Visma’s George Bennett (2017); BORA-hansgrohe’s three-time World Champion Peter Sagan (2015), who also holds the race record for stage wins (16); and EF Education First Pro Cycling’s U.S. veteran rider Tejay van Garderen (2013), whose credits include three top-10 Grand Tour finishes and the race record for the largest winning margin of all time (+1.47” ahead of the next competitor).
Starting on the first day of competition, the riders compete for jerseys in the overall competition (yellow jersey), King of the Mountain competition (polka dot jersey), sprint points competition (green jersey), best young rider competition (white and black jersey), and most courageous jersey (light blue jersey).
When measuring the water concentrations in an Ethylene Glycol (EG) sample, NIR Spectroscopy is the technology of choice. Ethylene Glycol and its derivatives are used across a wide range of industries including automotive, polyester fibers and resins, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage processing, pipeline maintenance, textiles, aviation, medical, and HVAC.
The most important variable affecting the glycol production is properly managing the water-to-oxide ratio. In commercial plants, improvement in yields can occur with a large excess of water under controlled pH levels in the solution. Tim Felder, President of Felder Analytics, a thirty-five-year veteran in applied process analytical technologies (PAT) states, “The trick is to measure and control the level of water to prevent any uncontrolled exothermic reaction. When this is done, both safety and yields are improved in the process.” He continues, “Guide Wave’s technology was selected by a leading worldwide EG producer as the most achievable control technology for measuring this process.”
Many EG manufacturers prefer using Guided Wave’s NIR instruments, due to the state-of-the-art design, repeatability, stability and elimination of drift. Both analyzers, the full spectrum NIR-O spectrometer or the ClearView db photometer make managing this measurement efficient. Either analyzer can be used successfully, the choice depends on the complexity of the application (i.e., number of measurements, varying chemistries, number of sample points and measurements). View the Feasibility Study