Time to Upgrade Your M412 Analyzer? Key Points Your Proposal Needs to Include

Over 20 years ago Guided Wave debuted the Model 412 near-infrared (NIR) process analyzer (M412). In 2016, with advances in technology and our pioneering experience in the spectroscopic analysis industry, the M412 was replaced by NIR-O. NIR-O provides better performance, advanced operations, and improved ROI.

There are 2 Options for Adopting a NIR-O Spectrometer for Existing M412 Users:

Upgrade M412 to NIRO

1. Retrofit your M412 Enclosure with the New NIR-O Spectrometer

The NIR-O Spectrometer can be retrofitted into any existing M412 installation. Simply schedule downtime for the analyzer, remove the M412 spectrometer and related elements, and follow the retrofit installation guide. Within a few hours, your NIR-O will be up and running in your existing enclosure and properly communicating with your DCS. Contact (link to RFQ) a Guided Wave sales representative to receive a quote for this special Retrofit Upgrade.

2. Purchase a Fully Certified IECEX, ATEX, or CSA Certified NIR-O

The retrofit of the M412 enclosure may invalidate any hazardous environment certifications for the M412. The state-of-the-art NIR-O has model certification for both IECEX and ATEX. Additionally, a CSA field certified design is available. Contact a Guided Wave sales representative to receive a quote to upgrade to a certified NIR-O full spectrum analyzer.  

Cost Reducing Considerations for Upgrading to NIR-O

Compared to new system installations, substantial savings can be realized by either retrofitting the M412 or purchasing a complete NIR-O analyzer system. There are 5 top cost-saving justifications to include in your project proposal. These include the ability to reuse existing probes and fibers, transferability of current chemometric calibrations, enhanced support for modern security protocols, quick adoption due to a minimal learning curve, and a convenient spare parts service plan.

NIR-O Analyzer

Reuse Existing Probes and Fibers

Guided Wave designed the NIR-O to be optically matched with existing M412 fibers, flow cells, and insertion probes. As a result, Guided Wave can offer a more cost-effective upgrade path to existing users. Reusing the probes and fibers from the M412 allows the NIR-O upgrade to be dramatically less expensive.

Keep your Existing Chemometric Calibrations

The chemometric calibration models in use on the M412 can be efficiently updated by Guided Wave staff for use on the NIR-O analyzer system. A calibration update reduces the opportunity cost associated with modernizing your analyzer.

Improve Security via OmniView Software

The Class PA software utilized by the M412 has provided users with years of trouble-free operations. However, security concerns and best practices were completely different 20 years ago. By upgrading to the NIR-O analyzer and associated OmniView software, your IT staff can rest assured knowing that the key analyzer software meets today’s vigorous security protocols.

Library of Online Support Videos and Training Materials

As part of the product launch for the NIR-O, Guided Wave developed a wide range of support videos hosted on our YouTube channel. In addition, we have NIR-O qualified support engineers available to help with startup and other troubleshooting issues.

Spare Parts and the WaveCare Support Program

The NIR-O spectrometer was designed specifically to address the service issues associated with the M412’s input module and shutter assembly. These design improvements have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the amount of service work required, resulting in more uptime for the NIR-O analyzer.  Additionally, an optional WaveCare Support Program was launched in 2019 to provide users with improved lead time on spare parts and service calls to further ensure uptime.

Contact a Guided Wave sales representative to save money and time by either retrofitting your M412 or purchasing a new NIR-O analyzer system.

Rental Solutions for Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization

Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide Monitor

Do you have an upcoming product release or need to verify a vacuum sterilization method?

The Guided Wave Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Monitor (HPVM), is a simple turnkey solution for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide and water (H2O2  and H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase. Conveniently Guided Wave offers short term HPVM rental solutions which provide continuous, accurate data for documentation and validation requirements. The HPVM rental plan is a complete ready-to-go system and includes calibration certificate, 6-meter fiber optic cables, and a redesigned 50 cm pathlength G-SST probe. The analyzer operates in real-time, which takes the guesswork out of determining the H2O2 and H2O concentrations during cycle development and throughout the actual vacuum sterilization cycle. 

Why Rent an Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Monitor?

Renting an Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Monitor (HPVM) is an ideal solution for short term monitoring needs. When only using an instrument for internment periods of time, it doesn’t make financial sense to invest precious resources learning how to set-up and operate a new interim system. As a result, the quick installation and start-up, along with the ease of operation and control, make the HPV Monitor a smart choice for rental applications.

The HPVM  is calibrated at the factory and no programming or modification is required by the user. To start-up, simply power on the HPV monitor, connect the G-SST probe via the fiber optic cables, and collect a ZERO or background reading in the dehumidified sterilization isolator. Immediately following an inject of sterilant, accurate H2O2 and H2O concentration measurements may begin. This allows for easy operation and controlled monitoring during the sterilization process.

Why Use Spectroscopy to Monitor Sterilant Concentration?

Because the HPVM uses proven NIR spectroscopic technology for quantifying the concentration of vaporized hydrogen peroxide in the sterilization chamber, renters/users can be totally confident in the monitoring results. NIR Spectroscopy is the only real-time monitoring technology capable of operating inside of a vacuum chamber during the sterilization process. Electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensors cannot handle the harsh vacuum conditions and elevated temperatures used in a modern sterilization process.  The HPV Monitor is not suitable to determine low (<100 ppm) concentrations, which are of occupational health and safety concerns.

HPV Response Curve
H2O2 Vapor Measurement Range0.1 - 50.0 mg/L, [71.2 – 35,600 ppm V/V]
H2O2 Measurement Accuracy ± 0.1 mg/L
H2O Vapor Measurement Range1.0 mg/L – to condensation, [>1345 ppm V/V]
H2O Measurement Accuracyx 1.0 mg/L (Relative to concentration at time of reference)
Response Time 1 second, minimum. User Settable
Ambient Temperature 10 – 45 °C10 – 45 °C
Optimal Ambient Temperature Stability< ±2 °C
Relative Humidity0 – 90% non-condensing

The Smart Choice for Reliable Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Guided Wave’s HPV Monitor delivers accurate, real-time H2O2 and H2O measurement results under vacuum conditions. Its long term stability and no maintenance requirements make it a cost-effective, smart choice to help optimize production and ensure product quality ultimately enhancing profitability. Quick and accurate determination of how much sterilant is actually in the vacuum chamber is achieved using the HPV Monitor.

An ISO 9001 certified company, Guided Wave maintains expert technical support and responsive global service for the lifetime of the HPV analyzer system.

Need a Long Term Sterilant Monitor?

Contact a Guided Wave Sales Representative to discuss purchasing the new Vaporization Hydrogen Peroxide Analyzer or the Vaporized Ethylene oxide (ETO) Analyzer. Based on the Clearview’s proven dual-beam photometer technology. the new HPV and ETO analyzers provide a cost effect monitor.

Decoding and Understanding IECEX and ATEX Markings

IECEX and ATEX are important safety certification for process analyzers being installed in hazardous environments. The NIR-O has a maximum protection rating of Zone 1, Group IIB+H2, T4. This protection rating is offered with either ATEX and IECEX certification.

What is the difference between Class 1 Div 1 Zone 1 and Class 1 Div 2 Zone 2 protection?

The major difference between Class 1 Div 1, Zone 1 and Class 1 Div 2, Zone 2 IECEX certification is in the assumption of risk. Div 1 or Zone 1 assumes that hazardous gases are always present in the environment. Div 2 or Zone 2 assumes that hazardous gases may be present in the environment, but are unlikely.

To achieve Div 1 or Zone 1 protection rating, a process analyzer must have a clean air purge system that keeps the enclosure under positive pressure. Additionally, if the pressure drops, an interlock must trigger which shuts off the analyzer and prevents the system from exposing the combustible gases to an electrical ignition source. The electronics cannot result until pressure is restored and for some amount of time. This is often referred to as an X-purge.

To achieve Div 2 Zone 2 protection rating, a process analyzer still requires a clean air purge. However, the airflow only must maintain positive pressure. If the pressure inside of the enclosure is lost the analyzer must alarm, but may remain powered on to collect data. This is often referred to as a Z-purge.

Understanding the ATEX Zone rating – the Petrol Station analogy

Zone 2 ATEX example
Class 1 Div 1 or Zone 1 – During refilling of the underground storage tank. When the truck arrives to refill the petrol station’s underground tank, it can be assumed that gas vapors are present.
Zone 1 - gasoline vapors maybe released when refilling your car
Class 1 Div 2 or Zone 2 – The pump. There may be gasoline or diesel vapor present if an automobile was recently filled.
inside of store is ATEX Zone 0
General Purpose – Inside of the petrol station. Considered a safe area where explosive gases are never present.

Explaining ATEX Group Markings

The gas and dust protections are defined by groups. A group III rating means that the enclosure is only rated to protect against dust infiltration. A group II rating means that the enclosure is protected against both dust and gas. The lowest gas protection is IIA the best gas protection rating is group IIC.

Group IIA – protection is adequate to prevent ignition of propane gas in the environment.

Group IIB – protection is adequate to prevent ignition of ethylene gas in the environment.

Group IIB+H2 – protection is adequate to prevent ignition of hydrogen gas in the environment.

Group IIC – protection is adequate to prevent ignition of acetylene gas in the environment.

ATEX and IECEX group markings have equivalent IP or Ingress Protection ratings. Guided Wave process analyzers all have NEMA 4 or IP 66 ratings enclosures as part of the protection design for hazardous and explosive environments.

What does the T marking mean in IECEX?

The T stands for the maximum external surface temperature that the analyzer must not exceed. This portion of the specification is to prevent the surface of the analyzer enclosure from igniting combustible molecules in the environment. For example, Ethyl Nitrate will explode if it comes into contact with a heat source or object above 90 ºC. Any analyzer that is going to be installed in an environment containing Ethyl Nitrate must be rated for T6 and never exceed a surface temperature above 85 ºC. The limit for T4 is that the outside of the analyzer will never be hotter than 135 ºC.  All Guided Wave analyzers have a T4 rating they are suitable for installation in petrochemical and refinery facilities

T RatingSurface Temperature Limit
T1 450 ºC
T2300 ºC
T3200 ºC
T4135 ºC
T5100 ºC
T685 ºC

Think Safety, Think Guided Wave Process Analyzers

Need an ATEX or IECEX certified inline process analyzer? have a question about using a spectrometer in a hazardous environment? Contact a Guided Wave Sales Representative to talk about your needs today.

Understanding the difference between PONA and PIONA

Near-infrared (NIR) technology can overcome the major problems associated with real-time inline monitoring of process hydrocarbon streams. In the case of the Naptha Steam cracker and other olefin units in the Refinery, PIONA (Paraffins, Isoparaffins, Olefins, Napthenes, Aromatics) are important properties. Naphtha feed streams can in principle be measured on-line by GC techniques, but the parameter measurements required for effective control include PIONA and %Distillation curve, which require long elution times and the added cost of a sample conditioning system.

PIONA (Paraffins, Isoparaffins, Olefins, Napthenes, Aromatics) - Petrochemical molecules measured by NIR spectroscopy
PIONA Petrochemcial (Hydrocarbon) molecules measured by NIR Spectroscopy.

PONA vs PIONA, what’s the difference?

PIONA is a more exact measurement standard. PIONA considers n-paraffins and isoparaffins to be different.  N-paraffins have long straight chains and provide higher cetane values for diesel fuels. The melting point of n-paraffins often occurs between 230-370°C, which results in a worsening of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, pour point) of the diesel fuel. Isoparaffin molecules, such as iso-butane, contain branched side chains. As a result, isoparaffins increase the viscosity, lower pour point, and increase the octane of the fuel. The ratio of n-paraffins to iso-paraffins is an important parameter in some fuel blending operations.

Chemical structures in PONA PONA refinery process which can be measured by FT-NIR spectroscopy

The Total Paraffin content (PONA) is easier to measure with NIR Spectroscopy

For complicated petrochemical mixtures, near-infrared spectroscopy can have difficultly distinguishing the contribution of iso-paraffins and n-paraffins to the absorbance spectrum of the petrochemical product. As a result, PONA, which measures the total Paraffins, Olefins, Napthenes, Aromatics is more straight forward and accurate spectrometric prediction.

Interested in learning if near-infrared spectroscopy can be used in your refinery to measure PIONA? Contact a Guided Wave Sales Representative

The Refinery of the Future – Targeted Petrochemical Production

Oil and Energy Companies Stock Investments, Industry Future

According to the February 20, 2019 issue of Chemical & Engineering News, “The Future of oil is in Chemicals, Not Fuels”, Saudi Aramco, BP, and other major oil producers and refineries are forecasting a decrease in the demand for fuel. Their rationale for the decline is the adopt electric cars and improved fuel economy cars, will decrease demand for barrels of oil dedicated to transportation fuel.

In an effort to stay competitive some oil producers are evolving their refining processes to target the production of specific chemicals. For example, ExxonMobil has developed a system which allows crude oil instead of naphtha to be processed by a stream cracker.

By creating variations in existing locations or processes in the refinery, valuable chemicals can be selectively created, purified, and sold in bulk.

Adapting Existing Analyzer to Support Targeted Petrochemical Production

As refineries move to produce specific chemicals, they require analyzers which can adapt and accurately monitor the process. The NIR-O Full Spectrum NIR Analyzer along with Omniview software can be quickly reprogramed to predict parameters of interest for any number of potential petrochemical compounds.

The 12 channel (sample points) variant of the NIR-O allows for the different sample points to be configured for various applications. In contrast to other analyzer vendors, the expand-ability of sample points and chemometric calibrations makes the NIR-O a smart choice for refineries following the crude-to-chemical trend.

Combining our Experience with Refineries and Petrochemical Analyzers

Guided Wave has over 35 years of experience providing custom solutions for the refining and the petrochemical industry. A shortlist of proven applications can be found on our application overview webpage.

Not finding your application on the list? Chances are high we have done it before and just couldn’t talk about it. Contact one of our Sales Representatives or complete our Interactive Application Questionaire Webform and we would be happy to discuss the potential solutions to your process monitoring challenges.

Learn more about the role of NIR Spectroscopy in the Refining Industry!

What Certification is needed for Process Analyzers in a Hazardous Area or Explosive Atmosphere?

Safety is an important consideration when installing electrical equipment in hazardous areas. Spectrometers and other Process Analyzers can be certified as safe for Class 1 Div 1 Zone 1 and Class 1 Div 2 Zone 2 environments by Certification Bodies.

What is IECEx?

International Electrotechnical Commission System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for Use in Explosive Atmospheres (IECEx System)

What are the Benefits of IECEx?

The fact that many countries operate under different standards means that Ex equipment often needs to be re-tested and re-certified to the appropriate standards of that country, adding to the cost of the equipment. The IECEx scheme significantly reduces the need for re-testing and certification by conforming and harmonizing to IEC standards, and therefore makes international trade easier, quicker and more cost-effective. IEC standards are used in many national approval schemes and as such, IECEx certification can be used to support national compliance, negating the need in most cases for additional testing.

What is ATEX certification?

Similar to the IECEx standard, ATEX is the European Union specific directive for protection against explosive atmospheres.

What are the Benefits to ATEX Certification?

By becoming ATEX certified Guided Wave can manufacture and sell spectroscopy based inline analyzers for environments known or expected to be filled with explosive and combustible gasses in the EU.

What Guided Wave Analyzers are dual certified for IECEx and ATEX accepting countries?

Guided Wave sells and manufactures several dual certified analyzers; The NIR-O Full Spectrum Analyzer, The Clearview db Photometer, and The Hydrogen Peroxide Analyzer.

NIR-O Dual Certification

Guided Wave’s is proud to announce the completion of dual certification for IECEx and ATEX electrical safety for the NIR-O Full Spectrum Analyzer. By completing the certification process, customers can rest easy knowing that Guided Wave’s products can be safely installed in Class 1 Div 1 Zone 1 and Class 1 Div 2 Zone 2 environments.

NIR-O provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio, wavelength stability, NIST traceable wavelength calibration, dual beam optics and built-in diagnostics. Process engineers, operators, and researchers will appreciate NIR-O’s ability to monitor up to 12 process streams or points within a stream with accuracy, repeatability, and reliability. Additionally, the optional Stability Monitor System can provide confidence in hardware performance in the field.

Complete NIR Analyzer System

NIR-O is the core of a comprehensive process analyzer system that includes the spectrometer, one or more NIR probes, fiber optic cables, and OmniView™ scanning and analysis software. Like our previous Guided Wave spectrometers, NIR-O uses infrared radiation to collect spectral data from liquids, gases, glass, and polymer-based films. The spectral data are interpreted by the OmniView software to determine the composition or physical characteristics of the material.

NIR-O Certification Options Include:

  • Z-Purge package: Class 1 Zone 2 Groups IIC (ATEX certification approved, IECEx certification approved)
  • X-Purge package: Class 1 Zone 1 Groups IIC (ATEX certification approved, IECEx certification approved)

Talk to the Experts: Navigating ASTM Validation Practice (D6122) and Process Analysis Implementation Strategies

The guidelines provided in the ASTM validation practices (D6122) can be part of a complete process analysis implementation strategy. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a routine measurement and analysis tool for both liquid and solid samples in a wide variety of industries and locations, both process and laboratory. For process measurement analyzers, validation is a key component of a complete measurement system. Guided Wave offers the Stability Monitoring System, which is a D6122 compliant solid-state process analyzer accessory.

ASTM D6122

For NIR process analyzers, continual validation is addressed in ASTM D6122 Recommendations of this method include: verification of adequate instrument performance, verification of the applicability of the calibration model to the spectrum of the sample under test, and verification of equivalence between the result calculated from the infrared measurements and the result produced by the primary test method used for the development of the calibration model. The performance tests defined in ASTM D6122 can be incorporated into an automatic validation protocol. This validation provides assurance that the measurement produced by the analyzer is a result of equipment that is operating properly. Guided Wave Product Manager, Dr. Ryan Lerud and President Susan Foulk have published an article in NIR News titled “Automated NIR analyzer validation (ASTM D-6122) for the Oil and Gas Industry”. Their article describes an automated validation system suitable for near infrared process analyzers. Would you like to talk to our experts about this topic?

Contact us for a meeting time to talk with either Dr. Ryan Lerud or Susan Foulk.

Rugged Probes and Flow Cells Meet Refinery Requirements

Guided Wave pioneered in-line fiber optic sample interfaces more than twenty-five years ago, with the introduction of the SST (Single Sided Transmission) Probe. This probe permits precise spectroscopic analysis of products directly in the process line without the need for sample systems and their associated investment and installation costs, lag times, failures, and constant maintenance requirements. In refineries, there are various operations that make the use of the SST probe ideal. For example, in para-xylene and petrol/gasoline plants where the sample is very clean (free from particulates and moisture), a direct in-situ SST probe is the best choice. It allows direct process measurement with simple installation in a pressurized line.

However, for diesel/gas oil applications it is highly recommended to use a heated MultiPurpose Flow cell (MPFC) with a heated incoming line to dissolve the trace levels of water in the sample. While direct insertion probes eliminate sample loops and sample systems and their associated problems, sometimes it is necessary to install sample loops for safety, service, and/or sample conditioning reasons. The MPFC is a convenient, compact, rugged sample interface that is easy to install and even easier to service. The cell’s sapphire windows can be cleaned by simply removing a clean-out plug (a Guided Wave innovation) for direct access to the windows without disconnecting process lines or fiber optic cables.

How to Choose the Right Probe or Flow Cell for Refinery Measurements

Guided Wave probes and flow cells offer high throughput, collimated optical beams through the sample, yielding lower noise and more accurate transmission values free of sample index of refraction effects. For faster maintenance and cleaning of insertion probes, Guided Wave’s Extractor Mechanism can be used. The controlled extraction of an in-line probe from pressurized process streams or reactors can be accomplished without shutting down the process, allowing continued use of the analyzer to verify process quality. Coupled with a gate or ball valve, these extractors have proven safe and effective in a variety of refinery installations such as Reformer, Gasoline Blending, Blender and Feed Streams saving downtime. James Low, Guided Wave’s Director of Sales and Support states, “The SST insertion probe extractor assembly is worth every penny when you consider the time saved on insertion probe maintenance.” He continue “I’ve been with Guided Wave almost since its beginning and the SST probe and the multipurpose flow cell are extremely durable and reliable. Our probes and flow cells are compatible with nearly every brand of analyzer and in normal refinery use they function virtually forever”.

Following the Process – Alkylation to Visbreaking – Refinery Analyzers for Every Measurement

Refinery Analyzer Locations Map
Download Infographic Map

From the raw materials to the end-product release, online analyzers can be used to improve refinery efficiency and profitability through all processes. A map illustrating the flow of oil and gas processing, along with a recently released article explains the role of process analyzers in petroleum product creation. The article is titled, “The Role of Process Analyzers in Refineries to Process Crude Oil into Usable Fossil Fuel Products.”

The Advanced Process Analysis Refinery Measurement Map

The Process Analysis Refinery Measurement Map shows which analyzer to use at each process along the way. For example, for total sulfur-nitrogen applications in liquids, solids and gases, use ATOM Instruments laboratory and online elemental analyzers. Or measuring viscosity? Look to SoFraser’s MIVI process viscometers as an alternative analyzer that measures the viscosity at the line temperature and can be combined with Temperature Compensated Viscosity calculations. When the fuel blender is producing petroleum products that are intended to be used as lubricants, then the analyzers can be used to monitor the Viscosity Index according to ASTMD 2270. Additionally, NIR measurements can be made to monitor the alkylation process. Specially, DG-NIR technology can be used to investigate the number of alkyl groups attached to the naphthalene (degree of alkylation) and ratios of monoalkylnaphthalene (MAN), dialkylnaphthalene (DAN), and polyalkylnaphthalene (PAN), used in High – performance synthetic lubricants.

Fuel Blending and Pipeline Management

After the different grades of fuel have been appropriately blended, they can be sent by a pipeline to the terminal for shipment all around the world. At the downstream terminal, fuel identification by NIR spectroscopy ensures that the correct and in-specification petroleum products are loaded onto the ships and sent to the customer. NIR spectroscopy (either full spectrum or discrete wavelength photometers) can provide significant information about the product itself and classify it according to the grade of gasoline, diesel, fuel oil, etc. Pipeline product interface detection methods are both fast and reliable utilizing the full range NIR-O spectrometer which can be used to provide nearly complete chemical information on the sample. Alternatively, the ClearView db multi-wavelength photometer yields more limited information, but would still provide rapid interface detection plus some chemical information.

Sample Interfaces for Refinery Processes

These instruments use fiber optic cables and direct insertion probes into the pipe to measure the product as it flows by. Guided Wave pioneered in-line fiber optic sample interfaces more than twenty-five years ago, with the introduction of the SST (Single Sided Transmission) Probe. This probe permits precise spectroscopic analysis of products directly in the process line without the need for sample systems and their associated investment and installation costs, lag times, failures, and constant maintenance requirements.

In refineries, there are various operations that make the use of the SST probe ideal. For example, in para-xylene and petrol/gasoline plants where the sample is very clean (free from particulates and moisture), a direct in-situ SST probe is the best choice. It allows direct process measurement with simple installation in a pressurized line. However, for diesel/gas oil applications it is highly recommended to use a heated Multi-Purpose Flow cell (MPFC) with a heated incoming line to dissolve the trace levels of water in the sample.

Read the full article: “The Role of Process Analyzers in Refineries to Process Crude Oil into Usable Fossil Fuel Products

Download the Advanced Process Analyzers for Refinery Measurements Map

Alphabet Soup or Calibration Acronyms PART II

As the field of process spectroscopy grows, so does the number of acronyms associated with the measurement methods. In the last blog post, we discussed the acronyms related to calibration that users may encounter. This blog will give a brief overview of some acronyms that are in frequent use related to Guided Wave analyzers and products. Some of these are specific to Guided Wave, while others are related to the methodology as a whole. The list below is in alphabetical order.

ANSI – American National Standards Institute
The ANSI is a private nonprofit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way.

ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTM International is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. They are a source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM International standards have an important role in the information infrastructure that guides design, manufacturing and trade in the global economy.

The European directive 94/9/EC requires that employers must protect employees from explosion risk in areas with explosive atmospheres. Manufacturers and importers must ensure that their products meet specific safety requirements. The goal of ATEX, which gets its name from the directive’s French title Appareils destinés á être utilisés en ATmosphères Explosibles, is to allow free trade of “ATEX” approved equipment within the EU by removing the need for separate testing and documentation for each member state.

CENELEC is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. This is a non-profit technical organization set up under Belgian law and composed of the National Electrotechnical Committees of 30 European countries. CENELEC’s mission is to prepare voluntary electrotechnical standards that help develop the Single European Market/European Economic Area for electrical and electronic goods and services removing barriers to trade, creating new markets and cutting compliance costs.

Fourier transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on time-domain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation. It can be applied to a variety of types of spectroscopy, including Near-Infrared spectroscopy (see NIR below).

ISO is an international-standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. The organization promulgates world-wide proprietary industrial and commercial standards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.

Near-Infrared or NIR is a region of the electromagnetic spectrum from about 750nm to 2600nm. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is the technique of using a sample’s NIR absorbance characteristics to predict parameters of interest. Molecules containing C-H, O-H, and N-H bonds absorb NIR radiation in specific regions or at specific wavelengths. These absorbance’s can then be used in a qualitative or quantitative measurement. NIR spectroscopy is widely used in both process and laboratory measurements across many industries (chemical, refining, pharmaceutical, polymer, semi- conductor, agricultural).

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), previously known as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. The institute’s mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve quality of life.

Process Analytical Technology (PAT) has been defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism to design, analyze, and control pharmaceutical manufacturing processes through the measurement of critical process parameters and quality attributes. While this term was initially defined in relation to the pharmaceutical industry, the concepts and methods can be extended to other industries.

The Single-Sided Transmission (SST) Probe is a rugged and reliable sample probe that is ideal for continuous process monitoring applications. SST means that light passes through the sample region only once. In contrast, transflectance probes pass twice, being reflected from the far end. The SST probe can be easily installed in a pipe or reactor through a single access port and works with any Guided Wave single-fiber spectrometer or photometer. Optional accessories make it easy to adapt the SST Probe to different kinds of process installations.

UV/VIS spectroscopy is the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of absorption of ultraviolet and visible light by a sample. Ultraviolet and visible light are energetic enough to promote outer electrons to higher energy levels. UV/VIS spectroscopy is usually applied to molecules and inorganic ions or complexes in solution. The spectra have broad features that are of limited use for sample identification but are very useful for quantitative measurements. The concentration of an analyte in solution can be determined by measuring the absorbance at some wavelength and applying the Beer-Lambert Law.

Calibration Acronyms

ANSI- American National Standards Institute
ASTM- American Society for Testing and Materials
ATEX- Atmosphéres Explosibles (French)
CENELEC- European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
CIE – International Commission on Illumination
FT- NIR- Fourier Transform Near-infrared
ISO- International Organization for Standardization
NIR – Near-Infrared
NIST- National Institute of Standards and Technology
PAT- Process Analytical Technology
SST- Single Sided Transmission Probe
UV/VIS- Ultraviolet / Visible